The life of lamps has always been one of the main concerns of everyone. To build a good lamp cooling system, it is not enough to select the LED component with low thermal resistance. It is necessary to effectively reduce the thermal resistance of the PN junction to the environment, so as to reduce the temperature of the PN junction of the LED as much as possible, and improve the life and actual luminous flux of the LED lamp. . Different from the traditional light source, the PCB is the power supply carrier of the LED and the heat carrier. Therefore, the heat dissipation design of the PCB and the heat sink is also very important. In addition, the material, thickness, area size of the heat dissipating material, and the handling and connection of the heat dissipating interface are all factors to be considered by the luminaire manufacturer.
Optical design should properly play LED standards
The directionality of the LED and the point source are one of the most typical features different from the traditional light source. How to use the two characteristics of the LED is the key to the optical design of the luminaire. Through the secondary optical design of the LED, the LED lamp can achieve an ideal light distribution curve. For example, in the indoor overall illumination, the brightness of the lamp is required to be high, and the lamp cover with high transmittance can be used to improve the light extraction efficiency; The light guide plate technology is added to make the LED point light source a surface light source to improve its uniformity and prevent glare from occurring. In addition, some auxiliary illumination and key illumination require a certain concentration effect to highlight the object, and then some light can be selected. A lens or reflector to achieve optical requirements.
Drive design must ensure constant current output
LED requirements for the drive circuit to ensure constant current output, because the LED forward operation, the LED forward voltage relative change region is small, in order to ensure the constant LED drive current is to ensure that the LED output power is constant. In addition, the dimming design is also one of the mainstream design of the current driving circuit. This is used in some scene lighting, and different brightness is allocated according to different environments to fully achieve the energy saving effect. At present, the main design direction of the driver is focused on improving the power factor of the power supply, reducing the power consumption, improving the control accuracy and accelerating the response speed. In addition to the design of the driver power supply, PCB layout and series-parallel mode are also design considerations.
Standard setting is indispensable
As a brand-new field, LED lighting requires the formulation of product standards, measurement standards, control and interface standards, and the current LED lighting products on the market are mixed. Many product information is not complete enough to mislead consumers. Including the competition of other high-efficiency light sources such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and traditional low-cost light sources, the LED lighting industry urgently needs a comprehensive standard system to maintain and promote the healthy and sustainable development of the industry. At present, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively promoting relevant standards for semiconductor lighting. China, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan are also actively developing LED standards.
High-power LED technology for lighting challenges
Although LEDs have gained room for accent lighting and decorative lighting in indoor lighting, LEDs have many challenges from true general lighting or ambient lighting, such as initial cost, low color temperature luminous efficiency, color rendering index, and system reliability.
Reduce initial costs through overall system optimization
As far as indoor lighting is concerned, especially household lighting is relatively sensitive to cost. Although the style of LED lamps is increasing and the luminous efficiency is getting higher and higher, the problem of expensive price still exists. This is to further reduce the price of LED light sources, and at the same time, it is necessary to optimize the design from the overall system level and reduce the total cost. From the low-end fluorescent lamps that have just entered the market at around $15 to the current level of less than $1.50, it is known that as the market continues to develop, the price of LED lamps will be more widely accepted in the near future.
Get rid of phosphors and limit low color temperature luminous efficiency
Indoor home lighting tends to be biased towards low color temperatures below 4,000K. Warm white light makes the whole environment more warm and relaxing; while cool white light gives a clean, efficient and bright feeling, suitable for office lighting and outdoor lighting. . However, due to the influence of phosphors, the luminous efficiency of LEDs at low color temperatures tends to be about 30% lower than that at high color temperatures.
Mixed red LED with both light efficiency and color rendering index
The higher the luminous efficacy of LED, the color rendering index is often somewhat low, and the indoor lighting requirement can objectively display the brightness and color of the object, and obtain the real effect of the human eye directly observing the external scene, so it usually needs higher color rendering. index. This requires the LED to further improve the color rendering index while improving the luminous efficiency, but it is also possible to obtain a display index greater than 90 by mixing some red LEDs on the luminaire level.
Improve high current drive efficiency and reduce LED cost
At this stage, the driving current of 1 watt LED can reach 350-1,000 mA, but usually under high current driving conditions, although the luminous flux is increased, the overall efficiency drop is obvious, so the overall cost and system light efficiency are between It is necessary to find a balance. If the luminous efficiency of the LED under high current driving can be improved, it can ensure that the number of LEDs required is greatly reduced under the premise of higher system luminous efficiency, thereby significantly reducing the cost.
Reducing the package size of the LED helps to increase design flexibility
The development of LED indoor lamps will be developed in the direction of art, miniaturization and personalization under the premise of energy saving, environmental protection and health. Therefore, reducing the package size of LEDs can increase the flexibility and innovation space in the design of lamps. In some cases where mixed light is used to enhance color rendering, a smaller package size will facilitate the design and blending of the blending lens.
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